java Netty and Project Loom

Essentially, the goal of the project is to allow creating millions of threads. This is an advertising talk, because you probably won’t create as many. Technically, it is possible, and I can run millions of threads on this particular laptop. First of all, there’s this concept of a virtual thread. A virtual thread is very lightweight, it’s cheap, and it’s a user thread.

Managed from afar by a Google control center, as well as on-board technology, the balloons will create an internet system on par with a typical 4G network by “beaming” internet to Earth. Project Loon (simply called “Loon” since 2018) was Google’s far-fetched and fanciful idea to connect the world’s digitally unconnected areas with balloons. Well, like its namesake, the project is a little out-of-this-world.

Project Loom Solution

In other words, a continuation allows the developer to manipulate the execution flow by calling functions. The Loom docs present the example seen in Listing 3, which provides a good mental picture of how this works. All of these innovations have led to more balloons being launched quicker, easier and staying airborne for longer periods of time. Most notably, Project Loon proved key during several recent natural disasters. In fact, the balloons have already fallen from the sky on more than one occasion. Since the majority of testing is in rural, minimally populated areas, no one has been injured so far.

Platform Threads

As mentioned, the new Fiber class represents a virtual thread. Under the hood, asynchronous acrobatics are under way. Why go to this trouble, instead of just adopting something like ReactiveX at the language level?

Java’s Project Loom, Virtual Threads and Structured Concurrency with Ron Pressler –

Java’s Project Loom, Virtual Threads and Structured Concurrency with Ron Pressler.

Posted: Wed, 26 May 2021 07:00:00 GMT [source]

Since there is not any official release of the JDK including Project Loom, we must use the early-access binaries provided by the project. Note Project Loom is still an ongoing project and all the information, names and definitions about it could change and there is not any official JDK released to work with. Find centralized, trusted content and collaborate around the technologies you use most. Whenever the caller resumes the continuation, the control returns to the last yield point. A continuation (or co-routine) is a sequence of instructions that can yield and be resumed by the caller at a later stage.

However, you will still be probably using multiple threads to handle a single request. In some cases, it will be easier but it’s not like an entirely better experience. On the other hand, you now have 10 times or 100 times more threads, which are all doing something. You won’t, for example, see them on a thread dump.

Project Loom is promising a good future to Java and its concurrency API to be at the level of other languages that already have lightweight concurrency models. These items bring issues to escalate java applications using the thread approach project loom java to do concurrent jobs using many threads. In this article, we discussed the problems in Java’s current concurrency model and the changes proposed by Project Loom. Threads cannot match the scale of the domain’s unit of concurrency.

Raw Data

This uses the newThreadPerTaskExecutor with the default thread factory and thus uses a thread group. When I ran this code and timed it, I got the numbers shown here. I get better performance when I use a thread pool with Executors.newCachedThreadPool().

Project Loom Solution

Given this problem, Cassidy and his team came up with a quirky solution. Instead of trying to stay in one place, they ideated releasing the balloons to float freely in the air while controlling their path through the sky using wind and solar power. They could move the balloons up or down to catch the winds they want them to travel in. This implementation of executor service uses a new thread per task scheduled unless there is a free thread to take it. Although it’s a goal for Project Loom to allow pluggable schedulers with fibers,ForkJoinPoolin asynchronous mode will be used as the default scheduler.

What’s new with Project Loon progress?

It used to be simply a function that just blocks your current thread so that it still exists on your operating system. However, it no longer runs, so it will be woken up by your operating system. A new version that takes advantage of virtual threads, notice that if you’re currently running a virtual thread, a different piece of code is run. First, let’s see how many platform threads vs. virtual threads we can create on a machine. My machine is Intel Core i H with 8 cores, 16 threads, and 64GB RAM running Fedora 36.

  • In this article, we discussed the problems in Java’s current concurrency model and the changes proposed by Project Loom.
  • To cater to that, the project Loom also aims to add lightweight stack retrieval while resuming the continuation.
  • Connect and share knowledge within a single location that is structured and easy to search.
  • After all, Project Loom is determined to save programmers from “callback hell”.
  • Another stated goal of Loom is Tail-call elimination (also called tail-call optimization).

You can create it using a builder method, whatever. You can also create a very weird ExecutorService. This ExecutorService doesn’t actually pull threads.

Listing 2. Creating a virtual thread

In between calling the sleep function and actually being woken up, our virtual thread no longer consumes the CPU. At this point, the carrier thread is free to run another virtual thread. Technically, you can have millions of virtual threads that are sleeping without really paying that much in terms of the memory consumption. It turns out that user threads are actually kernel threads these days. To prove that that’s the case, just check, for example, jstack utility that shows you the stack trace of your JVM. Besides the actual stack, it actually shows quite a few interesting properties of your threads.

There is a lot to be learned from failed projects such as Loon. For one, the often overlooked difference between potential and actualization. While the idea of Loon was welcomed with open arms by investors, partners, and internal engineers, its execution was less than ideal for a long-term and sustainable business. All of Google’s crazy “moonshot” ideas are a part of X Development. Project Loon started as one such crazy idea and later became a separate Alphabet subsidiary in 2018, “graduating” from being an X Development project. These results show a light decrease of memory and CPU usage.

Loon Was Worth the Moonshot

Now, in order to suspend a continuation, it’s required to store the entire call stack. The attempt in listing 1 to start 10,000 threads will bring most computers to their knees . Attention – possibly the program reaches the thread limit of your operating system, and your computer might actually “freeze”.

You might think that it’s actually fantastic because you’re handling more load. It also may mean that you are overloading your database, or you are overloading another service, and you haven’t changed much. You just changed a single line that changes the way threads are created rather than platform, then you move to the virtual threads. Suddenly, you have to rely on these low level CountDownLatches, semaphores, and so on. I barely remember how they work, and I will either have to relearn them or use some higher level mechanisms. This is probably where reactive programming or some higher level abstractions still come into play.

Write A Comment Cancel Reply

The cost to the company would be high after hiring skilled workers and other human resource teams for the workers. Installation charges of the Loon Balloon are very high. The entire setup is very costly ranging around $1.2 million for setup and $30,000/ year for maintenance. It is useful to connect remote areas where traditional internet is difficult to achieve due to topographic reasons.

With that model, every single time you create a user thread in your JVM, it actually creates a kernel thread. There is one-to-one mapping, which means effectively, if you create 100 threads, in the JVM you create 100 kernel resources, 100 kernel threads that are managed by the kernel itself. For example, thread priorities in the JVM are effectively ignored, because the priorities are actually handled by the operating system, and you cannot do much about them. This is a user thread, but there’s also the concept of a kernel thread. A kernel thread is something that is actually scheduled by your operating system.

Project Loom: Understand the new Java concurrency model

Project Loom offers a much-suited solution for such situations. It proposes that developers could be allowed to use virtual threads using traditional blocking I/O. If a virtual thread is blocked due to a delay by an I/O task, it still won’t block the thread as the virtual threads can be managed by the application instead of the operating system. This could easily eliminate scalability issues due to blocking I/O. Another question is whether we still need reactive programming.

This places a hard limit on the scalability of concurrent Java apps. Not only does it imply a one-to-one relationship between app threads and operating system threads, but there is no mechanism for organizing threads for optimal arrangement. For instance, threads that are closely related may wind up sharing different processes, when they could benefit from sharing the heap on the same process. The internet has leveled the playing fields for education, business and social change.

Listing 2 will run on the Project Loom JVM without any problems. The handler using virtual threads outperforms the others. It achieves lower latency and higher throughput while using less overall CPU time for the same workload. Essentially, a continuation is a piece of code that can suspend itself at any moment in time and then it can be resumed later on, typically on a different thread. You can freeze your piece of code, and then you can unlock it, or you can unhibernate it, you can wake it up on a different moment in time, and preferably even on a different thread. This is a software construct that’s built into the JVM, or that will be built into the JVM.